What is hacking? Types of hackers (Introduction to cybercrime)

13 May 2023 5 minutes Author: Lady Liberty

What does a “white hacker” do?

According to surveys, hackers are often not looking for profit and easy money, but rather want to test their skills and solve a puzzle in the form of protecting a company. At the same time, not everyone wants to break the law and take risks. Fortunately, a community of white hackers has been actively forming in recent years, and the demand for their services is growing, especially among large companies. In this article, with the help of experts, we will figure out who white hackers are, what their hats are for, how to become a hacker, and why it might be necessary. White hat or ethical hackers help companies find and close gaps in their security. Such hackers act on requests from companies that can be found on various websites, such as HackerOne or Bugcrowd. It is important to remember that hacking companies that did not ask for it can lead to legal action, even if you did not use their information in any way. White hackers try not to cause interruptions in the company’s operations with their activities – for example, they will not test DDoS resistance in the middle of the day.

White hackers are often referred to as white hats, while malicious hackers are called black hats. Such names appeared because of westerns, where the good guys wore white hats and the bad guys wore black. The main motivation of white hats is to develop their skills and use them for the benefit of the companies they work for. The main motivation of the black hats is to benefit no matter what. In addition to white and black, gray hats are often seen. Such hackers usually do not have criminal intentions when they hack, but they can hack into the products of companies that have not published a verification request, and if they get their hands on data that can be sold, they can take advantage of this opportunity.

Types of hackers

Hackers are classified according to the purpose of their actions. The following list categorizes the types of hackers according to their intentions:



Ethical hacker (white hat): a security hacker who gains access to systems in order to eliminate the identified deficiencies. They can also perform testing for penetration and vulnerability assessment.

A burglar (black hat): A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer systems for personal gain. Typically, the goal is to steal corporate data, violate privacy rights, transfer funds from bank accounts, etc.

A gray hat: a hacker who is a cross between ethical and black hackers. He/she hacks into computer systems without authorization to identify weaknesses and disclose them to the system owner.

Script kiddies: an unqualified person who gains access to computer systems using tools that have already been created.


Hacktivist: a hacker who uses hacking to send social, religious, political, etc. messages. This is usually done by hijacking websites and leaving a message on the hijacked website.

Phreaker: a hacker who identifies and exploits weaknesses in phones instead of computers.

Introduction to cybercrime

Cybercrime – is an activity related to the use of computers and networks to perform illegal actions, such as spreading computer viruses, online intimidation, making unauthorized electronic money transfers, etc. Most cybercrime is committed over the Internet, and some cybercrime is committed through mobile phones via SMS and online. chat programs.

Type of cybercrime

The list below summarizes common types of cybercrime:

Computer fraud: intentional misrepresentation for personal gain through the use of computer systems.

Violation of confidentiality: disclosure of personal information, such as email addresses, phone numbers, account information, etc., on social media, hacking of websites, etc.

Identity theft: stealing personal information from someone and impersonating that person.

Exchange of copyrighted files/information: This includes the distribution of copyrighted files, such as e-books and computer programs, etc.

Electronic funds transfer: This involves gaining unauthorized access to banking computer networks and making illegal money transfers.

Electronic money laundering: This involves using a computer to launder money.

ATM fraud: This involves intercepting card data at the ATM, such as the account number and PIN. These details are then used to withdraw funds from the intercepted accounts.

Denial of service attacks: This involves using computers in multiple locations to attack servers to shut them down.

Spam: sending unauthorized emails. These emails usually contain advertisements.

What is ethical hacking?

Ethical hacking is the identification of weaknesses in computer systems and/or computer networks with the use of countermeasures that protect the weaknesses. Ethical hackers should follow the following rules.

Before hacking, get written authorization the owner of a computer system and/or computer network.

Protect the privacy of an organization that was broken.

Transparently inform organizations about all identified deficiencies in the computer system.

Inform hardware and software vendors about identified shortcomings .

Why ethical hacking?

Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization. Information security can protect an organization’s image and save it a lot of money.

Fake hacking can lead to a loss of business for organizations that deal with finance, such as PayPal. Ethical hacking puts them one step ahead of cybercriminals who would otherwise lose business.

The legality of ethical hacking

Ethical hacking is legal if the hacker follows the rules outlined in the above section on the definition of ethical hacking . International Council of e-commerce consultants (EC-Council) offers a certification program that tests a person’s skills. offers a certification program that tests a person’s skills. After some time, the certificates must be renewed.

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